The TO-INFINITIVE and -ING (part 1)

When one verb is followed by another, we use the -ing form or the infinitive (with or without to. The form of the second verb depends on the first verb ;-).

Let’s learn them!

I hope this post helps you :-). 

verb + to infinitive English Grammar femfy Free English Materials For You.png

PDF version: verb+ to infinitive

I suggest that you take a look at Biggerplate.com for other amazing and informative mind maps!

VERB + TO INFINITIVE

  • (CAN/CAN’T) AFFORD
  • AGREE*
  • AIM
  • APPEAR
  • ARRANGE*
  • ATTEMPT
  • CHOOSE
  • DECIDE*
  • DEMAND*
  • DESERVE
  • FAIL
  • HOPE*
  • LEARN
  • MANAGE
  • NEGLECT
  • OFFER
  • OMIT
  • PLAN
  • PREPARE
  • PRETEND*
  • REFUSE
  • SEEM
  • TEND
  • THREATEN
  • (CAN’T) WAIT
  • WISH

Examples:

  • She can’t afford to lose that vote.
  • They agree to leave at 10:30 am.
  • * They agree (that) they would leave at 10:30 am.
  • We aim to launch next year.
  • Keep me posted on what you decide to do.
  • Your actions threaten to destroy everything we’ve worked for.

verb + object + to infinitive english grammar learning femfy.png

PDF version: verb + object + to infinitive

VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE

  • ADVISE *
  • ALLOW
  • ENCOURAGE
  • FORBID
  • FORCE
  • INVITE
  • ORDER 
  • PERMIT
  • PERSUADE*
  • REMIND*
  • TEACH*
  • TELL*
  • WARN*

Examples:

  • We would advise you to follow the same path.
  • The Administrative Board invites observers to attend its meetings.
  • We were trying to persuade the witness to testify.

Advise, allow, encourage, forbid and permit can be followed by -ING too when there is no object.

  • I would advise following the same path.
  • We do not allow smoking.

verb + (object) + to infinitive.png

PDF version: verbs + (object) + to infinitive

VERB + (OBJECT) + TO INFINITIVE

  • ASK
  • BEG
  • EXPECT*
  • HELP
  • INTEND
  • PROMISE
  • WANT

Examples:

  • I didn’t ask to work here.
  • I didn’t ask you to work here.
  • She begged him to read the story again.
  • We expect the economy to improve.
  • * We expect (that) the economy will improve.

verb + infinitive (without to)

PDF version: verb + infinitive (without to)

VERB + INFINITIVE (without to)

  • MODAL VERBS: can, could, may, might, must, needn’t, shall, should, will, would.
  • HELP (can be followed by the infinitive with or without to).
  • MAKE and LET (+ OBJECT) are always followed by the infinitive without TO.

Examples:

  • You can borrow my shirt.
  • She might go to Paris.
  • She helped (to) organise the party.
  • Don’t make me add this to the list.
  • After you finish, let the students copy it.

 

 

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Irregular verbs

It’s since a while that I am not uploading posts on grammar. In my opinion, for a beginner is not so easy to memorize irregular verbs, that’s why I decided to make mind maps and other resources on this topic. I hope you’ll find it useful.
Irregular verbs in English - mind map

You can download this mind map on Biggerplate (imx file). If you don’t have the possibility to open this kind of file, just download the image from Free English Materials’ Facebook Page (Album: Mind maps)

Since there are a lot of irregular verbs I decided to make smaller mind maps for each single group. In this way, it will be easier for you to read them.

Group one - one word

GROUP 1 – ONE WORD

  • cut
  • cost
  • hit
  • hurt
  • let
  • put
  • shut

Group two- two words

GROUP 2 – TWO WORDS

  • WITH ‘T’

    build/built
    – dream/dreamt
    – get/got
    – keep/kept
    – lend/lent
    – shoot/shot
    – send/sent
    – sit/sat
    – sleep/slept
    – spell/spelt
    – spend/spent

  • WITH ‘GHT’

    bring/brought
    – buy/bought
    – catch/caught
    – fight/fought
    – teach/taught
    – think/thought

  • WITH ‘D’

    – find/found
    – have/had
    – hear/heard
    – hold/held
    – make/made
    – pay/paid
    – read/read
    – say/said
    – stand/stood
    – tell/ told

  • SAME FORM FOR INFINITIVE AND PAST PARTICIPLE

    become/became
    – come/came
    – run/ran

English Irregular Verbs - Group 3.png
GROUP 3 – THREE WORDS

  • WITH ‘EN’

    – be/was-were/been
    beat/beat/beaten
    – bite/bit/bitten
    – break/broke/broken
    – choose/chose/chosen
    – drive/drove/driven
    – eat/ate/eaten
    – forget/forgot/forgotten
    – give/gave/given
    – hide/hid/hidden
    – ride/rode/ridden
    – rise/rose/risen
    – see/saw/seen
    – speak/spoke/spoken
    – steal/stole/stolen
    – take/took/taken
    – wake/woke/woken
    – write/wrote/written 
  • WITH ‘E’ – ‘WN’

    – blow/blew/blown
    draw/drew/drawn

    – fly/flew/flown
    – grow/grew/grown
    – know/knew/known
    – show/showed/shown
    – throw/threw/thrown 
  • WITH ‘I’- ‘A’- ‘U’

    begin/began/begun
    – drink/drank/drunk
    – ring/rang/rung
    – sing/sang/sung
    – swim/swam/swum

I’ll upload soon some quizzes on this topic. 😉

Difference between SUIT and FIT

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You can download this mind map (IMX file) here: Biggerplate

I don’t know why but I couldn’t upload the image like I usually do. That’s why it results so small and you can’t get the full-size version by clicking on it :-(. I’ll upload it on Facebook, so if you want to take a look, click on this link: Mind Maps .

Different ways of saying “I like it”

  • Different_ways_of_saying__I_like_it_I’m really into it.
    This means you’re interested in an activity or a subject.
    Ex. I’m really into gardening, but these squirrels keep messing with my tomatoes.
  • I’m fond of it.
    This means you have liked something for a long time or may have an emotional attachment with something.
    Ex. He is fond of this kind of music.
  • I’m keen on it.
    This just means that you’re interested in something and you want to learn more about it.
    Ex. I’m keen on learning English.
  • I’m mad about it.
    I love doing something and I do it a lot.
    Ex. It’s a real tragedy, I love this woman, I’m mad about her.
  • I’m crazy about it.
    This is the same as “I’m mad about it”.
    Ex. Finnish women are crazy about cars.
  • I can’t get enough of …
    This means that I love doing it and I don’t want to stop.
    Ex. Yeah, I can’t get enough of new wave.
  • I have got a soft spot for …
    You like someone a little more than other people.
    Ex. No, don’t tell me you’ve got a soft spot for this guy.
  • I fancy him/her
    You think that he/she is attractive, good looking.
    Ex. I mean, she may fancy him, but she’d never act on it.
  • It appeals to me.
    It sounds/ looks great. I like the idea of it.
    Ex. In his report, Mr Szejna has opted for a wide approach, which appeals to me.
  • It goes down well. (With people)
    This means that other people like something that you do.
    Ex. The presentation went down really well with the class.
  • It’s to my liking.
    A very formal way to sai “I like it”.
    Ex. The colour of the paint is just to my liking!
  • I’m partial to it.
    It means that I like to eat or drink something, maybe too much.
    Ex. I like all the food here, but I’m particularly partial to the fried chicken.
  • I’m attached to it/you/him/her/them.
    I like it a lot, and if I lost it, I would be sad.
    Ex. Giovanna, I admit that I’m very attached to you.
  • I’m addicted to …
    It means that I like it so much that I can’t stop doing it.
    She looks nice enough, but she lies on her taxes and she’s addicted to painkillers.
  • I have grown to like …
    I didn’t like it at first, but now I do.
    Ex. I’ve grown to like the music of Radiohead.
  • I am passionate about it.
    This means I’m really interested and excited about it.
    Ex. Julia runs the selection committee, and she’s very passionate about the candidates.

You can download this mind map on Biggerplate.

Ways of saying “goodbye” in English

Informal_goodbyes

INFORMAL GOODBYES

  • Bye! => very common way to say goodbye.
  • Bye bye! => it sounds very kiddish (more for kids).
  • Later! => Very friendly and casual way, more for men. Ex. “Later bro!”, “Later man”.
  • See you later / soon => Very casual and relaxed goodbye. It can be used to indicate that you want to or plan to meet with the person again soon. If you use “ya” instead of “you”, this become even more casual.
  • Talk to you later
  • I’ve got to get going / I must be going => This is used in casual situations when you want to escape the conversation quickly and you don’t want to go through a longer or more sentimental goodbye.
  • Take it easy => It’s now less used than in the past. It is casual and it means “take care”.
  • I’m off
  • Have a good one => Similar to “have a nice / good day”, but it sounds really casual.
  • So long! => It’s used in some news headlines, but not so common between people.
  • Alright => Very casual way.

Formal_and_business_goodbyes

FORMAL AND BUSINESS GOODBYES

  • Goodbye!
  • Have a nice day / have a good day! => For example, you buy something in a shop after you have paid the cashier would tell you “Have a nice day”.
  • I look forward to our next meeting
  • Take care! => it is a little formal and you use it with your close relatives and other people you are close too. You might use this in an email or written letter.
  • It was nice to see you again / It was nice seeing you.
  • Good night!  => Notice that “good afternoon”, “good morning” and “good evening” are greeting expressions and you can’t use them to say “goodbye”).
  • Farewell => it is more like a final goodbye. For example, someone is moving abroad and you are not going to see this person again. In this situation, you can use “farewell”.  It is the type of thing that two lovers in a movie might say if they’re never going to see each other again. So, you probably won’t use it often in daily life.

Slang_ways_of_saying_goodbye

SLANG WAYS OF SAYING “GOODBYE”

  • Later / laters / catch you later
  • Peace / peace out => it comes from the hip-hop music culture. It’s more of a hand gesture. It is a very casual way and it means that you wish the other person well.
  • I’m out / I’m out of here => You are really happy about going.
  • I gotta jet / I gotta take off / I gotta hit the road / I gotta head out => these are slang versions of “I have got to get going”. “Gotta” is an abbreviation of “got to”.
  • Catch ya later! => Variation for “See you later”. This is used very casually between friends or acquaintances.
  • Smell you later! => This is something you’ll hear kids say far more than adults! But grown-ups might occasionally be overheard saying this to a friend as a joke too. 

This is a video on this topic:

Mind maps download (imx file) available on Biggerplate.

To go – Phrasal verbs

go_pv_mind_map

You can download this mind map (imx. file) on Biggerplate.

EXAMPLE SENTENCES FROM THE WEB:

  • GO FOR
    1) To be attracted to; to have an interest in.
    You and me … We go for the bad boys.
    – He tends to go for girls like her.
    2) To attack.
     The neighbour’s dog went for the postman and bit him.
    – He is known to go for the jugular in arguments.
    3) To seek to obtain; to choose.
    – I think they would go for that kind of centralization.
    – I could really go for some hot wings.
  • GO THROUGH
    1) To bear; to experience a difficult/unpleasant situation.
    – Nobody would want to go through something like that.
    – In Malta, my fellow workers are going through disastrous changes.
    2) To examine the contents of something carefully.
    – We need to go through every message and assess the damage.
     That subpoena gives us the right to go through your files.
  • GO IN FOR
    1) To occupy oneself with; to engage in
    She goes in for volleyball.
    We have responded more to the will of our citizens and have been that much less inclined to go in for big events.
    – This will enable our students to go in for a three-year degree, in Italian, directly from Cairo and also take the exams in Egypt.
    2) To have or show an interest in or liking for.
    I thought you didn’t go in for those kinds of shenanigans.
    I don’t go in for those modern things.
    3) To enter a competition or to take an examination.
    My brother decided to cheer himself up by going in for a competition. The prize was a luxury holiday in the Caribbean.
    – He went in for the photography prize but didn’t win.
    – His school had suggested he go in for the Young Musician of the Year competition.
  • GO WITHOUT
    To be denied or deprived of something
    If you don’t like your tea, you can go without.
    She has had to go without a holiday for several years now.
    There were days I knew he went without food to buy music paper.
  • GO ABOUT
    1) To occupy oneself with; to perform
    – Meanwhile, the unsuspecting citizens of Coruscant go about their daily lives.
    – The shoemaker goes about his work with a smile.
    2) To begin to do
    We went about getting evidence of what was going on.
    How can I go about getting a good idea?
  • GO THROUGH WITH
    To stay with (something) to the end even if it’s something unpleasant or difficult.
    She went through with the divorce.
    We’re going to use him to go through with the transaction.
    Now you won’t have to go through with all that mess.
  • GO OFF
    1) To explode, or to make a loud noise.
    The bomb could go off at any moment.
    – The Hulk is a bomb waiting to go off.
    2) To leave suddenly.
    John went off with the money.
    Brian is going off to Milan and we’re throwing him a farewell party.
    3) To become angry quickly.
    He went off in a flash when he heard the news. I’ve never seen him so upset.
    4) To cease to be available, running, or functioning (of a light, electricity, or heating); to stop.
    The generator went off and we can’t get it started again.
    – The lights go off every six minutes, you know, to save electricity and stuff.

    5) To begin (with alarms, or signals).
    My alarm clock didn’t go off today and that’s why I was late.
    My alarm clock went off at 7:00 a.m.
    – It’s programmed to go off before you do.

    6) To follow the expected or desired course; to occur specified.
    The party went off well.
    7) To go bad; to decay.
    Something has gone off in the fridge, there’s a horrible smell.
    – The food went off very quickly, we had to throw it all.
  • GO ON
    1) To happen or take place.
    What’s going on at school?
    What’s going on outside? All your friends are out in the street carrying placards.
    2) To continue; to proceed; to keep on.
    Please, go on. Don’t let me interrupt you.
    Go on, tell me what happened next.

    3) To start running or functioning (of power, water supply, etc.)
    – The alarm goes on when you close the front door.
    4) To act or behave.
    – Don’t go on like that; stop kicking the dog.
  • GO ALONG WITH
    To agree with someone’s opinion/decision; to support an idea.
    I said it wouldn’t work. I didn’t go along with it from the beginning.
    – She’s still angry with me for going along with your idea.
  • GO TOGETHER
    1) To have a romantic relationship (informal).
    Are Mark and Mary still going together?
    They had been going together for years.
    2) To look or taste good when experienced at the same time (items of clothing, furniture or food).
    – Fish and red wine don’t go together.
    – Drinking and driving don’t go together.

I made this quiz for you :-), it will take you no more than 15 minutes. Try it out to check your knowledge about this topic.

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